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Artemisa is one of the two new provinces adopted by the Cuban National Assembly in August 2010 and whose operation took effect from 1 January, 2011. It consists of 8 municipalities of the former Havana Province, and 3 municipalities of Pinar del Rio Province.

The new province of Artemisa becomes the thirteenth in the country for its size and the eleventh in population, and the most densely populated province apart from Havana and Santiago de Cuba.

Artemisa´s population is 502 392 inhabitants. The area economy is primarily agricultural and livestock, it has an area of ​​272 849 hectares that allows the production of food to assure their demand and support the capital, and in the industrial sector it highlights the building materials industry.

It also has a place of perspective high industrial development: the Mariel port, one of the largest in the country, which investment and growth are within the framework of a special economic zone developed by the government.

The territory of the province comprises mostly flat areas, although from east to west, the province is crossed by Sierra del Rosario, the most important mountain range west of the country with its highest elevation Pan de Guajaibón (699 m).

The current provincial capital, Artemisa, arose due to the relocation of residents of Havana affected by a fire. The town grew rapidly based on the economy of coffee, first, and then in the sugar cane, surpassing in importance the neighbor regions, making it the second largest city of the then province of Pinar del Rio. The ruins of Cafetal Angerona, now National Monument, bear witness of the splendor of the cultivation of coffee that earned the region the nickname "Garden of Cuba."

The present territory of the province of Artemisa was scenario of several battles during the Wars of Independence, conducted by Antonio Maceo in his invasion to the West. Artemisa was the headquarters of the General Command of the Mariel Majana Trail, built by the Spanish in the narrowest part of the island with the purpose of preventing Maceo´s invasion to Pinar del Rio. Maceo fell in battle on 1896 in this province where a monument is erected.

A great number of fighters who participated in the Assault on the Moncada Barracks on July 26, 1953 in Santiago de Cuba and who took part in the Granma yacht expedition belong to this Province.

Also important personalities to the History and Culture of Cuba were born in this region.

Artemisa is one of the two new provinces adopted by the Cuban National Assembly in August 2010 and whose operation took effect from 1 January, 2011. The current provincial capital, Artemisa, arose due to the relocation of residents of Havana affected by a fire. The town grew rapidly based on the economy of coffee, first, and then in the sugar cane, surpassing in importance the neighbor regions, making it the second largest city of the then province of Pinar del Rio. The ruins of Cafetal Angerona, now National Monument, bear witness of the splendor of the cultivation of coffee that earned the region the nickname "Garden of Cuba". Also important personalities to the History and Culture of Cuba were born in this region.