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Guantanamo Province is located in the easternmost tip of the island of Cuba, it has an area of 186.2 km², representing a 5.58% of the surface around the country. It is divided into 10 municipalities. It has 514 230 inhabitants, representing the 4.59% of the Country.

The province consists of two major natural regions:

The Valley of Guantanamo, with flat relief and an extensive Bay, the third in global surface and the mountainous area covering 75% of the territory. It has also important rivers.

Weather conditions have interesting features that differentiate them from the rest of the island, since in the northern slope of the mountains Sagua – Baracoa it is recorded the highest values of annual rainfall in the country and on the south side, the lower rates in the nations .

Guantanamo is an aboriginal name that means "land between rivers". It has a rich history: here it was founded the first Village of Cuba (Baracoa) by Diego Velázquez in 1511, and its territory turned out to be an important stronghold during the wars of independence.

To this part of the island came many French settlers from Haiti, who soon promoted cacao, fruit trees and large areas of coffee plantations in mountainous areas, from whom we learned thefarming culture and customs, now entrenched in the population. In the province there are still vestiges of the indigenous settlements, of great ethnic and cultural interest.

American capital began to enter the economy in Guantanamo in the late nineteenth century, mainly in the sugar industry, and also in services and jobs generated by the military enclave in Guantanamo Naval Base.