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Located at the centre of the island, it was one of the first villages founded by the Spanish troops during their colonization of the island at the 16th century. It covers an area of 6736 km².The main city is called also Sancti Spiritus, and the territory is composed by 8 municipalities.

In 1977, the historical centers of Sancti Spiritus and Trinidad, the Parish Church, the Yayabo River Bridge, and the passage of the Ladies in Taguasco were proclaimed National Monuments.

The most important economic activities are agriculture, fishing, cigar, rice, coffee, cocoa, sugar cane, citrus and vegetable-oil-mining, gypsum and rock salt, cattle ranching, and refineries sugar and oil.

Its landscape combines mountains, valleys and beaches. To the south, it can be found one of the major mountain systems in the country, Sierra del Escambray o Macizo de Guamuhaya, with a rich fauna, a large area of ​​ forest and pines, protected in the National Park Peak of Potrerillo, with 931 meters above sea level. Another important peak is the San Juan, of 1140 meters. In the Center of the province, it is risen Sierra de Jatibonico and Bamburanao. The north is characterized by its low coasts.